Archive for September, 2009

Glossary

I have wrote down the economics terms that I know:

  • Economics – is a social science of how humans make choice with limited amount of resources.
  • Micro-economics – looks at individual economic relationships. The scale is usually small.
  • Macro-economics – looks at overall economic structure of the society. It looks at the big picture.
  • Economic growth – is a potential productive growth. The increase in real GDP indicates this growth well.
  • Economic development – does not concerns much with the growth in potential productive strength, however, looks at the improvement of human standard of living.
  • Ceteris paribus – is a concept that everything affect another. So this concept is very important in economics because even minor factor could effect economic assumptions.
  • Scarcity – is the key reason why there is a study called economics. Due to the lack of resources, humans have to make choices.
  • Different rationing systems – societies have various kinds of economic structures such as free market system, socialistic system, and mixed system.

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In what type of market are iPods categorized in?

Read the article: tutor2u: Q&A: In what type of…

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There is a controversy over whether iPods belong to monopoly market or not. Those people who say that it is not in the monopoly market categorized iPods as oligopoly market.

The arguments in favor of categorizing iPods as monopoly:

  • It dominates with the market share of more than 80 percent.
  • Apple built up ‘vertical monopoly’ by introducing generations of iPods.
  • DRM had appealed music industries to sell there products through iTunes, which strengthened this ‘vertical monopoly.’

The following points are arguments in favor of categorizing iPods as oligopoly market:

  • There are intense price competition.
  • Heavy investment on research and development.
  • Non-price competition.
  • Patented technologies.
  • Consistently creating new application.

In my opinion, iPods are in monopoly market. The arguments made in the oligopoly categorization are correct, however, I think that they’re just smart moves of Apple to dismantle the image of monopoly on their market.

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Circular Flow Model

The Circular Flow Model

There are some assumptions in this Diagram:

  • No government regulations
  • No savings
  • All output is purchased

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Broad Social Goals in Command and Market Economies

Today we have learned about what the primary goals of command and market economies are. We read two diaries of teenagers from different economies to compare what their economy’s goals are.

In the Student Diary A, the economy there valued economic equity, security, and stability. On the contrary, the economy in the Student Diary B valued economic freedom, growth, and efficiency.

In sum, there were 6 social goals in economics.

  1. Efficiency
  2. Equity
  3. Freedom
  4. Growth
  5. Security
  6. Stability

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We learned that neither of these economies alone can achieve all of the 6 goals. If it was a market economy, it often acheived 1, 3, and 4, but found it hard to achieve 2, 5, and 6. Similarily, planned economy often acheived 2,5, and 6, but failed to achieve 1, 3, and 4.

In summary, there are opportunity costs of choosing between market and planned economy.

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Lehman Brothers’ Collapse

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“Lehman Brothers Holdings is closing its doors with more than $600 billion of debt — the biggest bankruptcy in U.S. history.” – Market Watch.

Lehman Brothers was one of the biggest global financial-services firms. The collaspe and its bankruptcy has shocked invester from around the world, provoking fluctuating stock market.

How has Lehman Brothers owed debt of $600 billion in the first place?

“This crisis is clearly deeper than anybody had imagined only a short time ago,” says Peter Stein, an associate editor at the Wall Street Journal in a CNN article.

During the attacks in September 11, 2001, it had its offices destroyed leaving them with great loss. Also, Lehman brothers were exposed to unsecured mortgages, and they had terrible debt caused by credit-crunch.

So these critical problems piled on until there was an economic crisis in 2008 to 2009 which exploded Lehman Brothers. So Lehman Brothers had problems that pervaded so deeply it eventually collapsed when there was an economic crisis which had ‘exploded’ Lehman Brothers.

Resources:

Watch Market: Lehman folds with record $613 billion debt

CNN: Lehman Brothers collapse stuns global markets

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1:1 Computing

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My parents thought that 1:1 Computing was an exciting way to interact fully with the subject Economics. However, my parents were concerned with distraction you might get from laptops just like any other parents.

I think that if you reach Junior year, I think that most of the students get responsible of their academics. So there will be less of distraction. If we only set our laptops fully optimized for studying economcs, there would be no worrys. For example, you can register the class blog, moodle, and other economcis websites to bookmark to prevent going to irrelevant websites. Also, I think that our teacher is having full control of what students are doing on their laptops.

In short, I think that the distraction you get from laptops are neglegible.

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Human Development Index

Human Development Index is an alternative statistical data to GDP for indicating human development in each country.

It looks at 3 big categories: 1) long, healthy life, 2) knowledge, and 3) a decent standard of living. Specifically, they look at life expectancy, literacy rate, education, and GDP per capita.

I have researched China about its HDI. It ranked 94th country, and its HDI was 0.762 (out of 1). From this data, I have realized that even though China has the GDP of ranking top 3 in the world and economic growth rate of 9% every year, they were irrelevant. GDP and economic growth were not quite related to human development of countries.

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